The Alps are an extremely sensitive environment located in the heart of the European continent. Special geographical features cause particular constraints regarding connectivity, accessibility and transport infrastructure. Transport is one of the main causes of climate change – almost thirty percent of all greenhouse gases in the Alps can be attributed to transport – and both passenger and freight traffic volumes are rising continuously. Road transport in particular causes negative externalities such as air pollution, noise and traffic congestion. This makes mobility one of the biggest challenges for the social, economic and ecological development of the Alpine regions. A coordinated approach giving way to a coherent strategy is required to tackle these challenges in order to ensure a sustainable development for the Alps.